Tuesday, April 8, 2014

Tom Bradbury and Bradbury's Bakery



When he died in August 1972 at the comparatively young age of 59 years Tom Bradbury passed to his family a business which was known the length and breadth of Leinster, if not further afield, for unique ‘fancies’ commonly called ‘Bradburys Cakes’.  The fondant dips, almond fingers, japs, almond macaroons and franzipans were but some of the colourful tasteful ‘fancies’ which graced the Bradbury premises and brought visitors and locals alike to what was once Hamilton’s Hibernian Hotel in Leinster Street.  This year Bradburys celebrate 80 years in business and the story of how it all started commenced with an advertisement in the British Baker, a newspaper for the industry which is still being published today. 

Young Tom Bradbury, a native of Elworth near Crewe in England, was the son of a bicycle repair man.  In the inter war years young Tom worked part time for an Elworth baker and confectioner and there learned the skills which would later bring him to Ireland.  He enlisted in the Grenadier Guards, hopeful that it would eventually facilitate his desire to join Scotland Yard which had been his early ambition in life.  It was not to be however as it soon became apparent that the big young Englishman had blood circulation problems which militated against his continuing army career and he eventually had to leave the Grenadier Guards.

It was an advertisement in the British Baker placed by O’Leary’s Bakery in Bray, Co. Wicklow seeking a baker/confectioner which caught Tom Bradbury’s attention and resulted in his travelling to Ireland where he would live for the rest of his life.  He moved from O’Leary’s Bakery to other jobs before eventually joining Egans Bakery in Portlaoise.  There Tom, a Methodist, met and subsequently married Margaret Marsh, a Catholic from Portlaoise.  The religious background of both is important in order to appreciate the relevance of the information given to me by their son Johnny who described his parents as having married ‘in the porch in Carlow’.  In response to my obvious question Johnny, two years my junior and who has recently handed over the running of Bradburys to his own sons John and Tom, explained that Tom and Margaret, who was known as Peg, were only allowed to use the porch of Carlow Cathedral for their wedding ceremony.  This was in the mid 1930s, a time within living memory, when the intolerance of another age had yet to be discarded.

The young couple fortified by a loan from the groom’s father in England, purchased in 1938 a premises in Stanhope Street, Athy where the name Bradbury went over the front door for the first time.  The bakery and small bread shop was located next to Carolans Corner shop and between it and O’Rourkes saddlers was another small premises which Tom Bradbury would eventually purchase.  Bradburys Bakery business prospered in the town which up to then had boosted bakeries operated by Bradleys in Duke Street and Cawleys in William Street.  Paddy Hayden of St. Patrick’s Avenue who had worked in Bradleys Bakery now came to work for Tom Bradbury and Paddy would remain with the firm until he retired.  Paddy, a member of the Carlow/Kildare Brigade of the I.R.A. during the Irish War of Independence ran the bakery end of the business for many years for the former English Grenadier Guardsman Tom Bradbury.

Bradburys did so well in Stanhope Street that Tom was able to buy the small premises next door which he subsequently leased to Claire Behan of Leinster Lodge who used it as an outlet for selling milk from her farm.  Does anyone remember Bradburys when it was located in Stanhope Street and the next door premises where milk brought each morning from Leinster Lodge by Mick Leahy was sold?

The premises soon proved too small and when Hutchinsons in Leinster Street, formerly the Hibernian Hotel, came on the market Tom Bradbury bought it and moved his business to its current location.  From the extended premises Tom was able to expand the bakery business, opening a restaurant and wholesaling bread and confectionery.  Paddy Murphy, Plewman’s Terrace, was the first bread delivery man employed by Bradburys and he had a horse and a dray with which he made deliveries to other shops in Athy such as Lily Kanes, Munsie Purcells and many more, all of which with the sole exception of O’Brien’s of Emily Square are now closed or have changed hands.  The horse used on the Bradbury’s bread van run was called ‘Dolly’ and she was stabled at the back of Noonans in Stanhope Street.  The  normally placid ‘Dolly’  on one occasion acted out of character when frightened by something or other careered out of Bradbury’s yard straight across Leinster Street and through Jim Nelson’s pub door, only coming to a halt when the shafts of the dray stuck in the windows on either side of the pub door.  The same Jim Nelson had a lucky escape that day for it was usual for him at different times of the day to stand at his pub door with his arm extended above his head on the door jamb observing traffic and locals passing by.

‘Dolly’ and the dray were eventually replaced by Ford vans, four or five of which were used for bread deliveries in counties Laois, Wicklow and Kildare.  Ownie Pender of Milltown was another of the bread delivery men, while his sons Paddy, Damien, Denis and Eugene and daughter Rose were also working in the Leinster Street bakery.

The war years posed difficulties for Irish bakeries and one of the more frustrating problems was the embargo on the use of white flour.  On many an occasion the enterprising bakers in Leinster Street sieved the brown flour so as to obtain an acceptable form of white flour to satisfy the requirements of ‘special customers’.  Equally enterprising was the exploits of many other businessmen during the war years and later as attempts were made to overcome the food shortages which curtailed businesses so much.  Johnny tells the story of how his father Tom, through a colleague in the business in Kilmacthomas, County Waterford, obtained a large quantity of sugar which of course was rationed during the emergency years.  Anxious to get currants and raisins which were also in short supply he contacted what he believed was a Dublin based baker who was prepared to trade some fruit for sugar.  Borrowing Mick Rowan’s truck Tom motored to Dublin with the sugar only to find himself confronted by the Customs and Excise men who had entrapped him and no doubt many others in a sting operation designed to cut down on the black market.

Many men and women worked in the bakery, in the shop and in the restaurant operated by Bradburys over the years.  In the early years sisters Mary and Nancy O’Rourke of Stanhope Street were confectioners, while Nan Breen of Offaly Street worked in the shop and Paddy Murphy’s wife Lil worked in the restaurant.  Mick Lawler ran the office and his impeccably maintained office journals are still retained as records of the business operated by Bradburys over the last 80 years.  Some others recalled included Tommy Deering, George Robinson, Margo Higginson, Mrs. McConville, Brigid McHugh, Mag Chanders, Joan Walsh, John Mealy, Bridie Shortt, Bridie Connell, Kathleen Mahon, Ger Mulhall, Kathleen Keating, sisters Linda and Nuala Hayden and brothers P.J. and Leo Delaney and Tom and John Brennan.  Many members of the same family worked for Bradburys including Christy, Martin, Tony and Cora Eaton, while the Walsh family of John, Eddie, Michael, Joseph and Gerard probably provided the largest family grouping to work there. 

Tom Bradbury died on 19th August 1972, survived by his wife Peg, five sons and one daughter.  His young son Leslie died approximately 18 years earlier at a young age.  The bakery and confectionery business was subsequently operated by his sons Jimmy and Johnny and is now currently run by his grandsons John and Tom. 

Bradburys has been part of the commercial life of Athy for the last 80 years and in that time has become a well known and treasured establishment on Leinster Street.

Athy Association Football Club



This year marks the 60th anniversary of the refounding of Athy Association Football Club.  The first soccer club in Athy was believed to have been formed when a Mr. Sanford, a supervisor on the Barrow Drainage Scheme and some of his workers came together to play soccer under the name ‘The Barrow Rovers’.  This was in or about 1926 but given the prominence of soccer on the British mainland from an earlier period it is highly probable that soccer was played in south Kildare long before the Barrow Rovers were established.  However, I have not found any newspaper reports of soccer games involving the Athy club prior to 1926, so either the soccer played was not on a formal club basis, or alternatively the local newspapers did not report on any such games.

The Barrow Drainage team included a number of locals including Cuddy Chanders, who would later play on the County Kildare Senior G.A.A. team, as well as Ned Ward and Chevit Doyle.  Ned Ward had butcher shops at Stanhope Street and Duke Street and Chevit Doyle lived in St. Joseph’s Terrace.  The team played their home games on a field at Quarry Farm, owned I believe by the Fennin family.  The club lasted only for as long as the headquarters of the Barrow Drainage Scheme was located at Athy and when it moved from Athy the club ceased to exist. 

In 1948 a number of local men came together in the Leinster Arms Hotel to consider setting up a soccer club.  The club committee elected that night consisted of Matt Tynan as chairman, Danny O’Brien as secretary and Mick McEvoy as treasurer.  Matt was the manager of the local L. & N. Shop in Emily Square, while Danny O’Brien who lived in Barrack Yard and Jim McEvoy from St. Joseph’s Terrace were both local postmen.  The first committee comprised of Paddy O’Neill, Paddy O’Gorman, Jimmy O’Donnell, Mick Nolan, Harry Prole and Louis Pawelczyk.  The meeting was called apparently on the initiative of Matt Tynan who had been involved in the Athy Hockey Club before it went out of existence, leaving it’s playing pitch and galvanised dressing rooms at the Showgrounds vacant.  Paddy O’Neill, a local solicitor with offices over Anthony Auctioneers and who had also been involved with the Hockey Club, arranged for the transfer of the lease held by the Hockey Club to the newly created Soccer Club.

The first soccer match played by the newly formed Athy A.F.C. on it’s home grounds was against neighbouring Carlow and the Athy team that day was Cuddy Chanders, Mick ‘Jock’ O’Donnell of Castlemitchell, Tom Kiely, Joe ‘Lowly’ Walsh, Brendan O’Flaherty, Jerry Sullivan, ‘Sham’ Kelly of Dooley’s Terrace, Jimmy O’Donnell, Louis Pawelczyk, ‘Cymbal’ Davis and Billy Chanders whom I believe was brother of the goalkeeper Cuddy Chanders.  Tom Kiely, Jerry Sullivan and ‘Lowly’ Walsh were very experienced soccer players and had previously played for Carlow. 

The club colours were blue and white and the first sponsors of club jerseys were Michael Nolan, a draper of Leinster Street and Joe Kelly, the publican of Leinster Street.  The club’s first grounds man was Denis Smyth’s father, Mick, who lived in No. 2 Offaly Street and following a few friendly matches Athy A.F.C. entered the 1949/’50 Midland League and also played in the Sunday Alliance Division 1.  Training for matches was of the most perfunctory kind but at the end of the first season the club nevertheless reported a modestly successful season.  Interest in the game grew locally and in 1952 a summer street league was organised with teams from Pairc Bhride, Barrack Street, Leinster Street and St. Joseph’s Terrace.  The final played between Pairc Bhride and Barrack Street at the Show Grounds on 4th August 1952 ended in a one all draw, with Barrack Street winning the subsequent replay.  The winning team, all of whom received winners medals, included Tom Kiely, Joe Aldridge, Brendan O’Flaherty and Danny Shaughnessy.  I wonder if any of the street league medals of 1952 have survived and if the other members of the winning team can be recalled?

Athy A.F.C. joined the Wicklow League for the 1952/’53 season and transferred to the Kilkenny League the following year where it remained for the next six years.  Team players in the 1950’s included Michael ‘Gunner’ Quinn, Jim Foley, who subsequently emigrated to Liverpool, Brendan O’Flaherty, Cha Chanders, Joe Aldridge, Brian O’Hara, Mick Godfrey, Niall Smith, Denis Smyth, to name but a few.  The club went into decline around 1960 and dropped out of the soccer league.  It’s revival was due to a number of school boys including Fergal Blanchfield, Ger Moriarty, Joe McEvoy, Walter Clancy and Aidan Prendergast who came together as an informal group to play soccer.  They called themselves ‘The Tigers’ and played several friendly matches on the soccer pitch at the Showgrounds. 

Mick Godfrey who had been a player member of Athy A.F.C. organised a meeting for the Town Hall in December 1964 to which members of The Tigers were invited to attend.  At that meeting a new committee was formed, with Brendan O’Flaherty as chairman, Denis Smyth as secretary, Mick McEvoy as treasurer and committee members Ernest Henderson, Mick Whelan, Mick Godfrey, Brian O’Hara, Mick Aldridge, Mick Eaton and Cuddy Chanders.  A letter appeared in the Evening Herald in January 1965 from the club secretary Denis Smyth who was then living at 14 St. Patrick’s Avenue, Athy, in which he wrote: ‘in an area famed more for exponents of Gaelic football Athy Town A.F.C. finds it difficult to carry on and since our financial position will not allow us to participate in Dublin leagues we look forward to visits from outside clubs.  An enthusiastic schoolboy section of the club is anxious also to contact boy clubs in Dublin.  We have an excellent pitch here in Athy and being only an hour’s travelling time from Dublin we suggest it is an ideal choice for a days outing.’

After experiencing initial difficulties the 1968/’69 season saw a huge improvement insofar as the fortunes of Athy A.F.C. were concerned.  The club reached the semi-final stages of the Sheeran Cup with a team which included the likes of Johnny Morrissey, Noel Myles, Ernest Henderson and Seamus Clandillon.  Following an earlier suggestion by club secretary Denis Smyth it was decided to run a street league for young players and the subsequent league involving teams from Leinster Street, St. Joseph’s Terrace, Duke Street and Pairc Bhride catered for almost 200 players at Under 14, 16 and 18 levels.  Quite a large number of the young players involved in that street league subsequently went on to play at senior level for Athy Town. 

In August 1970 the club won it’s first major title when it defeated Newbridge Rangers in the final of the Ardenode Cup.  In 1971/’72 the club had three teams for the first time, a senior team, a second team and an Under 18 team.  That same year club member Michael Reen, a local school teacher, was instrumental in setting up Athy and District Association Football Council which included representatives from the Athy Club, together with eight other clubs catering for players in Kilberry and various other areas of Athy town.  F.A.I. coaching was introduced to the school players and regular coaching sessions were organised.  This led to further success with Athy A.F.C. winning the Ardenode Cup for the second time in August 1972. 

The story of Athy A.F.C. is ongoing.  The first 24 years of the club’s history was marked with an equal measure of success and disappointment, while the last 38 years have seen the club survive many vicissitudes to celebrate this year’s 60th anniversary under the chairmanship of Finbar Bride.


FRANK TAAFFE

Castlemitchell Community



The history of the 800 year old town of Athy is a story of a community growing from the close-knit village of yesteryear to the more loosely connected life of a modern day sprawling urban centre.  Where once both young and old alike knew everyone and every place within the town, nowadays there are limits to our local knowledge as the population increases and new estates are developed on the outskirts of the town.  It has become more difficult to maintain the unified community life which characterised the town’s earlier existence and so almost inevitably we find area communities emerging, lacking the cohesion and common purpose of a strong urban community.

I was prompted to reflect on this when I became aware of the Churchtown and Castlemitchell community celebrations over the August bank holiday weekend to commemorate 150 years of education in the area and the 50th anniversary of the Castlemitchell community hall.  Castlemitchell in my lifetime has been unique in terms of its community strengths.  Its isolated position at the southern tip of County Kildare and just inside the county border with Laois should have ensured an inconspicuous future for the area, but in truth the reverse was the case.  Nowhere was that perhaps better displayed than in the quiet disproportionate influence which it’s Gaelic football club had on Gaelic games in the county in the 1950s and later.  Castlemitchell’s footballers were then a rough tough bunch of players who literally left their mark on opponents as well as on G.A.A. administration.  They carved out a reputation which was awesome and attracted to their club a host of players, including some very good players of county calibre who for one reason or another fell out with Athy club officials. 

In addition to the strong Gaelic games tradition in the area which only came about with the demise of cricket as the local sport, Castlemitchell has a vibrant community life which has been sustained for many years.  Uniquely in my opinion Castlemitchell developed and sustained a close-knit community life which over the years has made it the premier rural community in south Kildare.  No other area in this part of the county can match the strength of its community involvement.  There are several good reasons for this and simply put, these are found in the names, Donnelly brothers, Joe Bermingham, Mick Fennin, Jack Wall, Maisie Candy, Dot Mullan and Mossy Reilly amongst many others.  The Donnelly brothers were for so long the heart of Castlemitchell football and earned for it the reputation which marked their team as a team apart.  Joe Bermingham was a community activist who went into politics and even though living on the very edge of County Kildare managed to contest and win many elections at county and Dail constituency levels.  It’s a feat which Jack Wall, who has taken over Joe’s role, has managed to replicate.  Mick Fennin served as secretary of Castlemitchell Football Club for 33 years, retiring two years ago, and his contribution to Gaelic games in the area played an essential part in sustaining the community life of Castlemitchell during these years. 

Retired school teacher Maisie Candy perhaps personified more than anyone else the spirit of Castlemitchell.  As a historian and a folklorist for the Castlemitchell area, she has highlighted the importance of community involvement and has helped maintain that community spirit which has kept Castlemitchell an active and vibrant community.  Mossy Reilly and Dot Mullan were also actively involved in their local community and like Maisie and others not mentioned by me contributed handsomely to the community life of the area. 

I am writing this a few days before the August bank holiday celebrations planned for Castlemitchell and Churchtown and courtesy of Ger McDonagh I have received a copy of a book to be launched at the weekend.  ‘A Community Remembers’ is a compilation of articles and newspaper extracts on various aspects of life in Castlemitchell over the years.  Short articles by former pupils of Churchtown School give a flavour of the happy times spent in the small rural school which opened just a few years after the Great Famine.  The history of Castlemitchell Hall is recounted with memories recalled of the Tops of the Club competitions held there in the 1960s.

The stories of the Meggars Club as well as the Churchtown Pipe Band, which I gather is being revived, are told with several other articles of interests including pieces on Joe Bermingham and Mary ‘Dot’ Mullan.  I was particularly delighted by the story written by Eibhlis Candy entitled ‘Pole Dancing in Churchtown School’.  The book ‘A Community Remembers’ will be on sale over the bank holiday weekend and everyone involved in it’s production are to be congratulated on an excellent job well done.

Here in Athy we are very fortunate that one of the world’s foremost photographers captured the people of Athy on film over a 25 year period from the early 1960’s.  John Minihan who lived in Plewman’s Terrace and attended the local Christian Brothers school photographed the townspeople while he was a staff photographer with the Evening Standard in London.  He took pictures of life in Athy, building up a unique record of a way of life in a small provincial Irish town.  His book of some of the Athy photographs was subsequently published and regrettably is out of print and virtually unobtainable in second hand bookshops. 

What John Minihan did in starting to photograph Athy’s people over 40 years ago was to add an important piece of work to the material which in years to come will form a unique record for social historians.  Last week the Athy Photographic Group and Athy Heritage Centre announced a photographic project for Athy under the title ‘A Week in the Life of Athy’ scheduled to commence the week commencing 7th September 2008.  This project is intended to involve as many local people as possible in taking photographs during that week of people, places and events in the town.  The purpose is to build up a documentary archive of life in Athy, realising that, like John Minihan’s work, it too will in time constitute a valuable resource for future historians and others. 

The project is one which invites involvement by anyone in Athy with a camera.  All you have to do is take photographs in the town of Athy during that week in September and to pass on the photographs to the Heritage Centre.  The project will be further outlined at the meeting to be held in the Heritage Centre on Wednesday 20th August at 8.00p.m.  If you would like to be involved come along to that meeting when further information and advice on the project will be available.  Please note that even if you cannot attend this meeting you can still be involved in the project.  Ideally you should pass your name and address onto the Heritage Centre in the Town Hall if you intend to take part in the project.  The Centre will give out an information sheet following the meeting on August 20th to anyone wishing to take part in the project.


John Crosthwaite Watch Maker, Philip Crosthwaite San Diego



In 1760 a 15 year old boy left his parents house at Shanraheen, just outside Athy, and walked the main road to the capital city of Dublin.  John Crosthwaite was destined to become one of Ireland’s foremost clock and watchmakers and is included in William Stuart’s ‘Watch and Clockmakers of Ireland’ where he is noted as ‘an important maker.’  His grandfather John Crosthwaite who was baptised at Keswick in Cumberland England in 1666 was of farming background and had settled in Ireland, exactly when it is not now known.  Was he perhaps part of the Williamite Army which defeated King James’s Army at the Battle of the Boyne? 

Shortly before his arrival in Ireland the population of Athy numbered 565, of which 83 were English born and 482 were native Irish.  Incidentally the comparative figures for Carlow were 560 and Naas 303.  The Protestant settlers of the time were undoubtedly alarmed at the Catholic resurgence under Charles II and their fears were further increased with the accession of James II in 1685 and the appointment of a number of high ranking Catholics to positions of power in the Irish administration.  The Williamite Wars which resulted in the Treaty of Limerick and the Battle of the Boyne gave way to a period of relative prosperity and calm in the country.  English settlers who in the years immediately following the Cromwellian Wars arrived and departed with apparent regularity, now settled in the developing urban community of Athy or the surrounding farmland which were described by Thomas Monk in 1682 as ‘level and plain areable, and there very fertile, plentifully yielding all sorts of grain; with considerable increase which encouridges the painefull husbandman to turne all under the plow.’  Little wonder then that the likes of John Crosthwaite would settle in the south Kildare area at the turn of the 18th century. 

Crosthwaite married Mary Crawley and they had a number of children, only two of which I have so far been able to identify.  They were Philip, born 1715 who in 1740 married Gertrude Ringwood and their son John, born on 29th September 1745 was to become one of Ireland’s greatest watch and clockmakers.  The other identified son of John and Mary Crosthwaite was Joseph who lived in and inherited the family farm at Killart, while his brother Philip farmed at nearby Shanraheen.

John, the future clockmaker, arrived in Dublin in October 1760, after walking the entire journey and he reportedly used to say that on his arrival he heard ‘the city bells tolling for King George II’s funeral.’  The entries relating to Crosthwaite in William Stuart’s reference book show that he was apprenticed in 1716 in Christchurch Yard.  For three years from 1772 approximately he worked at Dame Street and for the following 20 years at the Sign of Kings Arms at 27 Grafton Street in Dublin.  In 1796 he had his own business at No. 26 Grafton Street where he operated under the style of ‘John Crosthwaite & Son’, later as ‘Crosthwaite & Co.’ and later still as ‘Crosthwaite & Hodges’.   He died on 30th January 1829.

A few years ago Julian Cosby, whose family own Cosby Hall in Stradbally but who himself lives in England, paid me a visit when in Athy to do some maintenance work on the Town Hall clock.  Cosby, who is one of the world’s leading horologists, told me of Crosthwaite and his importance as a clockmaker.  Some of Crosthwaite’s unique clocks are to be found in various locations throughout Ireland.  St. Columba’s College Rathfarnham has a Crosthwaite double dial wall clock, while the Church of Ireland in Delgany has perhaps his most famous clock, still in existence in the Church tower.  The Customs House in Dublin had a Crosthwaite clock, which unfortunately cannot now be traced.  There are a number of Crosthwaite drawings which were published at the latter end of the 19th century, held in either the National Library or Marsh’s Library in Dublin.  A friend of mine sent me some years ago a copy photograph of the covers of two journals kept by Crosthwaite.  The earliest is dated 14th May 1761 and the other has embossed in leather on the cover ‘John Crosthwaite Watchmaker 1773’. 

Another noteworthy Crosthwaite was Philip Crosthwaite, born in Athy in 1825.  He was another descendant of the English settler John Crosthwaite, his parents being Edward and Rachael Crosthwaite who emigrated to America some years before his birth.  They had returned to Ireland to visit their own home when their son Philip was born and he was left in the care of his grandparents in Athy when they returned to America.  It was highly unusual for anyone who had left Ireland for America in the decades before the Great Famine to return to this country, especially for a visit and the indications are that the Crosthwaite family were well off.  With his parents having returned to America Philip lived with his grandparents until he was 16 years of age when he left for America to visit his mother, returning to Ireland in 1842 to enter Trinity College, Dublin.  His grandmother died in the first year of the Famine in 1845, following which Philip journeyed again to America where he was to remain for the rest of his life.  Without intending to do so he ended up in San Diego and it was there that he was to spend the rest of his life, dying in 1903 at the age of 77 years.  In an article dealing with his life in the ‘Journal of San Diego History’ Pamela Tamplain described Crosthwaite’s involvement in the American Mexican War.  He married in 1848 and held a number of local government positions in San Diego county during his lifetime.  He was the first County Treasurer for San Diego and was also a member of the City Council, a School Commissioner, a Justice of the Peace and a Deputy Sheriff.  In addition to his civic and political career Crosthwaite also played an active part in the city’s Masonic Lodge, becoming the Lodge’s first Master after it received its Charter.  Rather strangely for a man who on his death was survived by 7 sons and 3 daughters, his grave was an unmarked plot in the Masonic Lodge of the local cemetery until the members of the Lodge placed a memorial over it 65 years later.  He played an important and an active part in the early life of San Diego city and is remembered today in that city as the Irish man who was born in Athy 183 years ago.

Some time ago I got an email from a grandson of Patrick Keogh who was a member of Athy Urban District Council from 1920 to 1925.  He lived at 28 Woodstock Street from 1919, having previously lived in Offaly Street.  Born in Dunlavin in 1875 Patrick Keogh at two or three years of age was brought to America with his family and he was educated there before taking up an apprenticeship as a cabinet maker in Steinways, the piano makers.  I don’t know when he returned to Ireland but I am told that when he did he worked for Doyles Brothers and also for Rigneys where he made coffins.  He married Mary Tomlinson, whose father John Tomlinson farmed at Foxhill.  Patrick and his bride in the early years of their marriage lived in St. John’s Lane, later still in Offaly Street and Woodstock Street.  Elected to the Urban District Council following the January 1920 local elections which were the first elections held under the proportional representation system, Keogh held office until the 1925 elections.  Interestingly his fellow Council members, of which there were 15, represented the Sinn Fein Party, the Labour Party, the Unionist Party and Nationalists interest.  I don’t have any further information on Patrick Keogh and would welcome hearing from anyone who can help me in that regard.  At St. Michael’s Cemetery there is a memorial to a Patrick Keogh who died on 8th July 1956 and his wife Mary who died on 3rd March 1944 and their daughter Phil who died in 1932 aged 8 years.  I wonder was this Councillor Patrick Keogh and his wife Mary who lived in Woodstock Street?